Novel genomic findings in multiple myeloma identified through routine diagnostic sequencing

AIMS: Multiple myeloma is a genomically complex haematological malignancy with many genomic alterations recognised as important in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decision making. Here, we provide a summary of genomic findings identified through routine diagnostic next-generation sequencing at our centre.  METHODS: A cohort of 86 patients with multiple myeloma underwent diagnostic sequencing using a custom hybridisation-based panel targeting 104 genes. Sequence variants, genome-wide copy number changes and structural rearrangements were detected using an inhouse-developed bioinformatics pipeline.  RESULTS: At least one mutation was found in 69 (80%) patients. Frequently mutated genes included TP53 (36%), KRAS (22.1%), NRAS (15.1%), FAM46C/DIS3 (8.1%) and TET2/FGFR3 (5.8%), including multiple mutations not previously described in myeloma. Importantly we observed TP53 mutations in the absence of a 17 p deletion in 8% of the cohort, highlighting the need for sequencing-based assessment in addition to cytogenetics to identify these high-risk patients. Multiple novel copy number changes and immunoglobulin heavy chain translocations are also discussed.  CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that many clinically relevant genomic findings remain in multiple myeloma which have not yet been identified through large-scale sequencing efforts, and provide important mechanistic insights into plasma cell pathobiology.

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